The history of science in early modern Iberia cannot be told in isolation from the transcultural contact with the Americas. The intersection of early modern Iberia with the discovery of America is often described as a history of discovery – a discovery which challenged old ideas and conceptions of nature and the universe. In the seventeenth century, natural philosopher Francis Bacon asserted that knowledge would no longer be received through books but rather direct observation and experimentation. The “new science” which Bacon described was, however, already a part of the Iberian scientific traditions which emerged in large part from encounters with the traditions of Native Americans. This course focuses upon the production and circulation of knowledge within early modern Iberia, a knowledge which was the product of transculturation. This dissemination of knowledge was not only limited to print but also other channels of knowledge production. By looking at various themes in science, technology, and society, we will examine the cross-cultural and mobility of knowledge in early modern Iberia. We will particularly focus on the following questions: How and why did early modern Iberians know things? How were systems challenged, transformed, or reinforced?